One of the earliest known uses of cryptography can be traced back to ancient Rome. **Julius Caesar** was well-known for his use of a type of substitution cipher dubbed “Caesar cipher” or “Caesar shift”. The encryption is very simple: shift every letter a certain value down the alphabet (the value is known as the * key*). For example, Caesar used a key of 3 to encrypt his messages to his general, so the message “ATTACK AT DAWN” would be encrypted into “DWWDFN DW GDZQ” (use the scheme of a=0, b=1, c=2, d=3…).

Although it was an efficient encryption system in ancient times, since then it has been revised to be much more secure. The Caesar cipher has thus been demoted to the preferred code used by children and teenagers for basic decoding puzzles.

Due to the simplicity of the encryption, cracking the Caesar cipher is quite easy with the use frequency analysis, pattern recognition and brute force analysis. **Brute force analysis** can be used if the attacker knows that a Caesar cipher has been used. If that is the case, the message can be decrypted using every possible key (e.g. 1, 2, 3…) until a message that makes sense is acquired.