In the late 18th century, the great mathematician **Carl Friedrich Gauss** was given a punishment by his teacher for being mischievous. The punishment was this simple yet tedious problem: add every integer number from 1 to a 100.

Gauss, now referred to as the “Princeps mathematicorum” (Latin for “*the Prince of Mathematicians*”), came up with a simple shortcut and solved the problem without breaking a sweat. He realised that he could add two numbers from opposite ends of the range of numbers and get the same number e.g. 1 + 100 = 101, 2 + 99 = 101 etc. Using this logic, there must be a certain number of identical pairs of 101.

He then came up with the following equation:

**100/2 x (1 + 100) = 50 x 101 = 5050**

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