Posted in Life & Happiness


The coffee that we order from cafés tend to be espresso coffee, which is made by roasting fresh coffee beans, grinding them up and extracting 30ml of coffee from exactly 8g of coffee beans at 9 atmosphere pressure. This concentrated form of coffee can be drunk straight as espresso, or short black, but there are many more variations that can be seen on the menu.

Firstly, there is the basic method of diluting it with hot water, now called a long black or americano. If it is chilled with ice, it becomes an iced americano.
Other than espresso and long black, most coffee use steamed milk and foam. For example, if only a dollop of foam is placed on the espresso, it is a macchiato; if only steamed milk is used, it becomes a flat white or a latte (a latte has more froth).

To make a more complicated drink, layering both steamed milk and foam produces a cappuccino, well-known for its dry foam that coats the drinker’s lips. As every country has a different recipe for it, it is often a subject of debate, even to the point of Italy publishing an official standard recipe for traditional Italian cappuccinos.
As a cappuccino has more foam than steamed milk, it has a richer taste. A flat white has a much smoother taste as it has the most steamed milk.
Furthermore, a mocha is made by adding chocolate to a latte, and an Irish coffee is made by adding whiskey to long black.

A glass of this aromatic drink can brighten up a morning, let you enjoy a relaxing, luxurious afternoon, or casually sipped while chatting to friends.

Posted in Life & Happiness


Making lemonade is quite easy.

1 cup sugar
1 cup water
4~6 lemons
3~4 cup cold water (to dilute)

Firstly, dissolve the sugar in 1 cup of water to make syrup. If the sugar does not fully dissolve, warm the water a little.
While the sugar dissolves, juice the lemons until about 1 cup of lemon juice is collected.
Mix the lemon juice with the sugar syrup, then add an appropriate amount of water. The key point is to get the ratio just right to balance the sweetness and sourness.
Then, pour the mixture into a pitcher and put it in the refrigerator. Cool for 30~40 minutes. A cool summer drink can be made this easily.

In Western countries such as the USA, it is quite common to see children selling lemonade in a cup at a stand on the streets. It is quite popular as the children get to pretend running a large business while earning some pocket money.
How much profit will a business that sells a cup of lemonade at 10~50 cents (USD) make? (for convenience’s sake, NZD will be used with New Zealand prices in 2010)

If the above ingredients makes 2L of lemonade, and the cost of cups are included:
Ingredients: ($0.85 x 6) + ($1.49 x 0.5) + ($1.69 x 2) = $9.23 (lemon, sugar, cups)
One cup holds about 100ml, so 2L makes about 20 cups of lemonade. This means the cost of producing one cup of lemonade is: $9.23/20 = $0.46
Therefore, if a child wants to make any profit, he/she needs to sell the lemonade at least 50c a cup (about 38c USD). This makes a profit of 4 cents per cup, and the child earns less than $1 per pitcher of lemonade sold.