Pi (π) a mathematical constant that is defined as the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It is approximately equal to 3.14159, but since it is an irrational number (cannot be expressed as a ratio), the decimal places go on and on with no repeating segments. The history of pi extends back to almost 5000 years ago, as it plays such a crucial role in geometry, such as finding the area of a circle (A = π ²). It is not an understatement to say that pi is among the top five most important numbers discovered in history (0, 1, i and e being the others).
The interesting thing about pi is that it is an irrational number. As mentioned above, this means that pi has an infinite number of non-repeating decimal places, with numbers appearing in random sequence. For example, pi to a 30 decimal places is 3.141592653589793238462643383279… Because of this feature, pi contains all possible sequences and combinations of numbers at a certain point. The corollary to this fact is, if pi is converted into binary code (a number system of only 0 and 1, used by computers to encode information), somewhere in that infinite string of digits is every combination of digits, letters and symbols imaginable. The name of every person you will ever love. The date, time and manner of your death. Answers to all the great questions of the universe. All of this is encoded in one letter: π.
It is said that oil and water do not mix. This phrase is also used to describe two people who do not get along and cannot even stay near each other. But technically speaking, oil and water can be mixed. When you mix oil and water, you will find that droplets of oil float in the water. If you add an emulsifier (something that helps emulsion – the mixing of oil and water – such as soap or egg white), the oil droplets break down into very fine droplets that spreads through the water to make a stable emulsion fluid. Thus, even something like oil and water that appear to never mix can be mixed using science. Not only that, but some foods that we enjoy so much such as mayonnaise, milk and vinaigrette are all emulsions. Two fluids with different densities and properties, never wanting to be together, can combine to form such a great mixture.
If two people who never get along and refuse to mix were to congeal like mayonnaise, they may form a surprising combination, producing synergy.
Red, green, blue, white… There are many colours that we can see and there are even more different combinations of colours possible. It is common knowledge that some colours clash with each other while some synergise very well. A common example of a “good combination” is when you use complementary colours. Complementary colours are two colours that oppose each other on the colour wheel, creating an effect where they brighten each other. This makes it very eye-catching and attracts people’s attention. For example, blue and orange make a bright contrast making them a popular colour choice for movie posters. Red and green, and yellow and purple are also examples of complementary colours. Complementary colours are an important concept in art and design as it helps the product stand out.
Complementary colours have an interesting relationship with our sense of sight. If you stare at a colour for a while then quickly look at a blank, white surface, you will see an afterimage of the complementary colour. A good example is when you have your eyes closed under bright sunshine and upon opening your eyes the world seems a blue hue (the blood vessels in your eyelid make the light appear orange as it reaches your eyes). This is because the retinas try to negate the intense colour by downregulating the nervous signals corresponding to that colour, which makes the complementary colour stand out. Furthermore, the photoreceptors in the retina become fatigued after stimulation, causing a reduction in the signals sent for that colour.
Knowing about complementary colours is very useful when designing a sign or poster that easily attracts people.