Posted in Psychology & Medicine

Voodoo Death

We inherently fear death. Much of what we do biologically is struggling against death. We eat and drink to sustain ourselves. We feel pain to avoid things that may eventually kill us. Even moments before our death, our brain will flash our life before our eyes to grasp at any past experiences that may help us survive.

Because of this, we are also inherently neurotic. Some fear flying in a plane because they can imagine the plane crashing and burning, even knowing that flying is safer than a car ride. Childhood traumas where we thought we might die cause long-lasting damage to how we behave and think as an adult.

The most interesting example of how the fear of death can affect us is the phenomenon of voodoo death.

American physiologist Walter Cannon published a paper in 1942 studying cases of “voodoo death” – where healthy people (usually from tribal societies) suddenly passed away after being cursed. Voodoo death starts when a person is cursed or condemned to die by a medical person, such as a witch doctor or shaman. The victim and those around them must believe that the curse will actuall kill them (due to the culture or tradition). The victim’s family may even prepare a funeral. The victim loses all hope that they can survive the curse. They then die, even though their body shows no signs of physical ailment.

For example, the Australian Aborigines are known to have practised “boning”, where a witch doctor would point a vexed bone at an enemy, causing the victim to immediately convulse and die. A Nairobi woman passed away within 24 hours of finding out that the fruit she ate was sacred and she committed a great sin. A Maori man, who was told he should never eat wild game meat, died a day after finding out that he had accidentally eaten wild game meat – even though he had eaten it 2 years ago.

Voodoo death is not only limited to pre-modern societies. In the 1990’s, there was a documented case where a patient was diagnosed with terminal metastatic oesophageal cancer. After saying his goodbyes to his family as were his last wishes, he swiftly passed away. On autopsy, they discovered that the cancer had not actually spread that much and was not the cause of death.

There are many theories as to what may cause voodoo death. The traditional thought was that intense fear and stress stimulates the release of catecholamines such as adrenaline, inducing a massive fight-or-flight response, as seen in broken heart syndrome. The surge of adrenaline causes the heart to beat too fast and too strongly, until it gives out and causes cardiac arrest.

However, more recent studies showed that animals that die from stress exhibit signs of the opposite happening – that is, the parasympathetic nervous system (responsible for the common type of fainting spells called vasovagal syncope) is overactive. Because the parasympathetic nervous system has the opposite effect to the sympathetic (fight-or-flight), it can cause the heart to slow to the point of stopping.

This parasympathetic overactivity may be triggered by a sense of absolute hopelessness, essentially causing the body to “give up” on life. On a related note, the hopeless victim will likely not be eating or drinking much while under extreme emotional duress, so dehydration and catatonia may play a role as well.

Voodoo death is an excellent example of how much power the mind has over the body. Ironically, the fear of death itself can cause death.

Posted in Life & Happiness

Time And Healing

A tiny wound like a paper cut or pin prick takes about one week to heal. A cut from a sharp object like a knife takes 2~4 weeks to heal. Broken bones take 6 weeks to heal. Even after a heart attack (myocardial infarction), with proper medical care and rehabilitation you will return to living a relatively normal life 3~4 months later (assuming you survive). But there is no concrete figure of how long it takes to heal the aches of a broken heart.

The time it takes to get over a broken heart is extremely variable from person to person, case by case. Even so, ultimately the wound will heal and you will be able to move on with your life. Sure, the healing process will leave a scar that may cause you to wince every now and then, but you will come to accept and become okay with things. People do all sorts of things to hasten this process, from harmless things such as demolishing a tub of ice cream to acts such as rebounding or walking down a self-destructive path. But there is nothing that will heal a broken heart like the best medicine – time.

Time has an incredible effect on the body, mind and heart. It is like fertiliser for good memories, letting it bloom and flourish over time, while acting as pesticide for bad memories, slowly weeding them out until it is out of sight. So if you are in pain from a wound – physical or emotional – let time do its job and work its healing magic. And remember that just like a cut, poking at the wound in your heart will only delay the healing process. While time does all that, all you have to do is survive.